Pest control in German forests: General patterns of biodiversity and possible impacts of Btk, diflubenzuron and lambda-Cyhalothrin on non-target arthropods, birds and bats – a literature review

  • Ingo Brunk
  • Thomas Sobczyk
  • Mechthild Roth


This review focuses on direct and indirect impacts of three insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, Diflubenzuron, lambda-Cyhalothrin) on arthropods, bats and birds. General patterns of ecology, diversity, distribution and aspects of nature conservation of these three non-target animal taxa in Germany were examined, as well as their specific exposure and possible direct and indirect effects of the insecticides after application. We conclude, that a) the knowledge of direct and indirect effects of the above mentioned insecticides is still very scarce, b) there is an urgent need for more in detail studies in field in general, especially on indirect effects on vertebrates (including amphibians and reptilians), and for further ecotoxicological laboratory studies especially on sublethal effects on vertebrates.

Review paper